What is UPSC | UPSC Syllabus, Pattern, Exams

What is UPSC | UPSC Syllabus, Pattern, Exams

Source:- Jagran Josh

What is UPSC:- Union public service commission is a department which conducts exams every year for the candidates who are aspirant of IAS, IPS, and IRS, etc. This UPSC department is known for conducting the toughest exam for selecting a candidate.

All the candidates are selected for the following positions…..  

Indian Administrative Service (IAS)
Indian Police Service (IPS)

Central Services (Group A)

Indian Foreign Service (IFS)
Indian Audit and Accounts Service (IA&AS)
Indian Civil Accounts Service (ICAS)
Indian Corporate Law Service (ICLS)
Indian Forestry service (IFoS)
Indian Defence Accounts Service (IDAS)
Indian Defence Estates Service (IDES)
Indian Information Service (IIS)
Indian Ordnance Factories Service (IOFS)
Indian Postal Service (IPoS)
Indian P&T Accounts and Finance Service (IP&TAFS)
Indian Railway Accounts Service (IRAS)
Indian Railway Personnel Service (IRPS)
Indian Railway Protection Force Service (IRPFS)
Indian Railway Traffic Service (IRTS)
Indian Revenue Service (IRS-IT)
Indian Revenue Service (IRS-C&CE)
Indian Trade Service (ITrS)

Group B Services

Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Services (AFHCS)
Delhi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands Civil Service (DANICS)
Delhi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands Police Service (DANIPS)
Pondicherry Civil Service (PCS)
Pondicherry Police Service (PPS)

The Eligibility which you should have for appearing in the UPSC Examinations

  1. You should be graduated from the any University of India.
  2. The person should be a citizen of India.
  3. The minimum age should at least 21 Years.
  4. SC,  citizens can attend the examination till 37 years.
  5. ST citizens can attend the examination till 35 Years.
  6.  General Categories candidates can give the CSE examination till completing their 32 years.

The Process of UPSC Examinations

UPSC Stages:- UPSC  conducts exams in three phases

  1. Preliminary Examinations
  2.  Mains Examinations
  3. Personality Interview test

1. Preliminary Examinations:- Prelims examination is the first stage when a candidate enters the UPSC competitive examinations. The candidate faces two types of papers at this stage.

(1) GS-1 Exam

(2) CSAT ( Civil Examination Aptitude Test )

2. Mains Examinations:- Majorly 4 types of exams are conducted at this stage, which are  GS-1,2,3,4. Except  4 – GS papers, there are 5 more exams which are conducted, Hindi and English both are only qualifying nature, and 1 exam for essay and 2 exams are for Optional subject.

UPSC Mains Papers and their Marks are Given Below


E.No. Subjects Marks
1 ( Indian languages )  Qualifying 300
2 ( English ) Qualifying 300
3 Essay 250
4 GS – I 250
5 GS – II 250
6 GS – III 250
7 GS –  IV 250
8 Optional Subject – 1 250
9 Optional Subject – 2 250


Last 10 Years UPSC Applied Form Vs Cleared Preliminary Vs Mains Cleared

UPSC Prelims Syllabus

General Studies Paper – I

  • (1) Current events of national and international importance.
  • (2) History of India and Indian National Movement.
  • (3) Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
  • (4) Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj,
  • (5) Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • (6) Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, (7) Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.
  • (8) General issues on Environmental Ecology, Biodiversity, and Climate Change – that
  • (9) General Science

CSAT/ General Studies Paper-II

(1) Comprehension
(2) Interpersonal skills including communication skills
(3) Logical reasoning and analytical ability
)4) Decision-making and problem solving
(5) General mental ability
(6) Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) – Class X level)
(7) Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency, etc. – Class

UPSC Mains Syllabus

GS-1 ( Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society

  1. Indian culture covers the salient features of Literature, Art Forms, and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  2. Modern Indian history includes significant events, personalities, issues from the middle of the eighteenth century until the present
  3. Various stages and important contributors and contributions from different parts of the country in ‘The Freedom Struggle’
  4. Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country
  5. History of the world includes events, forms and effect on the society from 18th century like world wars, industrial revolution, colonization, redrawal of national boundaries, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc
  6. Salient aspects of Diversity of India and Indian Society
  7. Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and remedies
  8. Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism
  9. Distribution of key natural resources across the world including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent; factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world including India
  10. Effects of globalization on Indian society
  11. Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes
  12. Salient features of world’s physical geography

References Book for GS-1


  • India’s Ancient Past – RS Sharma
  • Facets of Indian Culture (Spectrum publications)


  • Centre for Cultural Resources & Training (CCRT) website

GS-2 ( Polity, Governance, Social Justice, International Relations )


Subjects Topics
  • Indian Constitution
  • Features of Indian Constitution
  • Amendments in Indian Constitution
  • Provisions
  • Constitutional and non-constitutional bodies
  • Government policies and interventions
  • Governance
  • Transparency
  • Accountability
  • E-governance applications
Social Justice
  • Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger
International Relations
  • Bilateral Groupings
  • Regional and global groupings
  • Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests


References Books for GS-2 


  • ‘Indian Polity’ by Laxmikanth (Do read this book at least three times)
  • Class 11 NCERT – ‘Indian Constitution at Work’

GS-3 (Economics, Science & Technology, Biodiversity, Security, Disaster Management )


Subjects Topics
  • Economic Development in India
  • Macroeconomics
Science & Technology
  • Dark Matter
  • Higgs Boson
  • Rare Earth Elements
  • GM Crops
  • Gene Editing
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Space Technology
  • Defence Technology
  • Types of Biodiversity
  • Biodiversity and Environment
Disaster Management
  • Disaster Management in India
  • PM Cares Fund
  • National Disaster Management Plan 2016



GS-4 ( Ethics, Integriety, Apptitude )


S.NO. Topics
1 Ethics and Human Interface
2 Human Values
3 Attitude
4 Aptitude
5 Emotional Intelligence
6 Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and the world
7 Public or Civil Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration
8 Ethical issues in international relations and funding corporate governance
9 Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; information
10 Codes of ethics &  Citizen’s Charters


Know Here Each and Everything About UPSC

FAQ’s Related to UPSC Doubts

Q.1 Can I attend the UPSC exams if I am last year student of my Graduation?

Ans. The last year’s students can attend the UPSC exams.

Q.2  What is Eligibility for UPSC Exams?

Ans. You should be 21 years old with a graduation degree.

Q.3 How many years take UPSC?

Ans. It takes only one year. If UPSC aspirant does not fail at any stage of UPSC.

Q.4 What are the famous services in UPSC?

Ans. Most of the selected candidates want to become IAS, IPS, and IRS. Except for these posts also there are many more services that are well known in society.

Q.5 Is UPSC tough?

Ans. This is not a tough task to crack UPSC for those who are studying regularly.



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